Honor servir como presidente de CLAEP

Ha sido un gran honor servir como president de CLAEP, el consejo de acreditación para las escuelas en periodismo y comunicación en América Latina. Aquí es el texto de mi discurso final:

VIII ENCUENTRO DE PROGRAMAS ACREDITADOS POR CLAEP

Abril 15,16 y 17 de 2018

Quito, Campus Universidad de Los Hemisferios

Gracias a todos ustedes por asistir a este octavo encuentro de escuelas de periodismo y comunicación de América Latina, acreditadas por CLAEP.

Debo un agradecimiento especial a la Universidad de los Hemisferios en Quito, al Dr. Daniel López y a todo su equipo de trabajo, por su inestimable apoyo  y por abrir las puertas de su casa para sede de este encuentro. También quiero agradecer la colaboración de la escuela de Comunicación de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.

Antes de nada, quiero mencionar lamentablemente el asesinato de tres personas en el área de la frontera con Ecuador y Colombia. Me refiero al periodista Javier Ortega, al fotógrafo Paúl Rivas y el conductor Efraín Segarra de El Comercio de Quito. Personalmente les envío mis más sinceras condolencias a mis colegas en El Comercio y especialmente a las familias y muchos queridos amigos de los tres.  La Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa, en reunión de medio año en Medellín, Colombia, ha hecho una condena muy fuerte. Hace muchos años, Ecuador ha sido un país sin violencia contra periodistas. Ojalá que este acto de violencia no sea un cambio para el futuro.

Mis colegas, nos encontramos en un momento de grandes cambios y retos en la educación en periodismo y comunicación. Nunca hubo más necesidad de considerar cuidadosamente cómo enseñamos y qué enseñamos a nuestros estudiantes. Estamos en un momento de transición en los medios de comunicación muy distinta de cualquier otra en nuestra historia.

El populismo en todo el mundo ha cambiado el panorama político. Veo el cambio en Europa, pero especialmente en Inglaterra y su transición con Brexit. Los retos políticos y los cambios grandes están ocurriendo en muchos países de América Latina, incluso aquí en Ecuador. Como ustedes saben, estamos pasando por un momento especialmente difícil en los Estados Unidos. Además de los retos económicos que han afectado a todos los medios de comunicación, tenemos amenazas políticas específicas, así como la nueva acusación de noticias falsas, o fake news. La credibilidad de nuestros medios de comunicación nunca habían estado en duda antes. Los periodistas y los medios de comunicación nunca habían estado en baja estima por la opinión pública. Pero esto cambió.

En esta reunión, vamos a escuchar presentaciones sobre nuevas tecnologías, cómo monetizar el contenido en el Internet, las fuerzas del autoritarismo que limitan la libertad de expresión y la libertad de prensa, los cambios provocados por las redes sociales en el gobierno y el público, y, tal vez lo más importante, escucharemos a nuestros estudiantes.

Escucharemos informes sobre investigaciones académicas realizadas por nuestras universidades acreditadas. Quiero enfatizar la importancia de nuestra investigación y cómo nuestra investigación debe ser una parte integral de la enseñanza. Si hay estudiantes, profesores, investigación y docencia, entonces tendremos las características adecuadas de una universidad.

Este será el último discurso que haga en un encuentro de CLAEP, como su presidente.

Ha sido uno de los más altos honores de mi vida profesional servir como su presidente. Como ustedes saben,  anteriormente fui editor del Houston Chronicle y también presidente de la Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa en el 2000.

Recuerdo bien la formación de CLAEP y mi participación personal, que comenzó con una conferencia hemisférica de la SIP en Cantigny, Illinois en 1995. En 2003,  comencé la segunda parte de mi carrera profesional como profesor de periodismo en Southern Methodist University en Dallas, Texas. He trabajado más de 40 años en periodismo. Ha sido un honor y un privilegio trabajar todos los días de estos años en el periodismo.

Mañana, mi colega Aurellio Collado va a presentar un discurso de la clausura de este encuentro. Aurellio serå el proximo presidente de CLAEP. Aurellio ha trabajado hace muchos años en CLAEP. Yo observé Aurellio en muchas situaciones. Es un muy buen amigo, y les pido a ustedes para todo su apoyo en todos los proyectos que él está planeando. Él hablará mañana sobre el future de CLAEP.  Escuchen bien, por favor. Aurellio, te felicito, y te agradezo.

Los dejo con dos afirmaciones que creo con todo mi corazón.

1. Sin una prensa libre, la gente nunca será libre. La libertad de prensa está intrínsicamente ligada a la democracia, y la democracia nunca sobrevivirá a largo plazo sin una prensa libre.

2. Es común y popular criticar a nuestros jóvenes en todas partes del mundo. Hay dudas sobre su ambición de mejorar el mundo, escepticismo sobre su capacidad de aprender. Nuestros jóvenes son llamados perezosos e irresponsables. Mis colegas, no crean ni una palabra de esto. Si hay algo que es fake news en el mundo, es eso.

Aquí van las noticias reales para ustedes:  nuestros jóvenes, nuestros estudiantes, nuestros hijos y nuestros nietos, son más inteligentes y están mejor preparados para el mundo en el que vivirán. Enseñémosles bien y esperamos que vivamos lo suficiente para ver cómo estos jóvenes pueden cambiar el mundo.

Finalmente, gracias a ustedes por su apoyo y su participación durante estos años. Mi especial agradecimiento a Suzy Mitchell, quien como siempre, ha organizado esta reunión y que ha sido una gran amiga para mí. Desde mi corazón, Suzy, muchas gracias.

CLAEP va a crecer y será un gran éxito con el compromiso de la gente en este encuentro y otros que responderán al llamado de la excelencia en los próximos años.

Les deseo solo lo mejor. Godspeed to you all.

 

SMU Student Media Inc. to dissolve

The following column was published earlier today on www.smudailycampus.com.

Student and alumni reaction has been strong and emotional regarding the closing of Student Media Company Inc. at Southern Methodist University. Formed almost 90 years ago, the independent company publishes the SMU Campus Weekly (formerly The Daily Campus) student newspaper and the Rotunda yearbook. Declining ad revenue is forcing the change. The concerns have centered on loss of independence and the possibility that free speech by students will be lost and that censorship by the SMU administration could be a factor in future publications.

The print newspaper will cease to exist with its last edition next month. The online version of the paper, SMUDailyCampus.com, will continue under the supervision of the Division of Journalism. The future of the Rotunda is uncertain.

I am pleased by the reaction from students and alumni. It means that in our journalism classes, we have taught them the value of the First Amendment and the dangers of limiting press freedom. The historical lesson, from every part of the world, is that democracy suffers when freedom of expression is restricted.

I hope, too, that our students have learned the history of SMU, and some of the tradition of its Wesleyan founding. There is a seminal story frequently told by the late SMU Professor Emeritus Marshall Terry. It concerned an incident in the 1950s when Cold War tensions were running high and the fear of communism was palpable. Willis Tate was president of SMU, and unbeknownst to him, a student group had invited John Gates, an avowed Communist and former editor of the Daily Worker, to speak.  Tate only found out about the invitation by reading the SMU Daily Campus, and he was not pleased.

In his history of SMU titled From High on the Hilltop, Terry put it this way: “These were Joe McCarthy times and, in Dallas, John Birch times of ultraconservatism when SMU already seemed scary pinko to many.”  The “pinko” reference had been directed personally at President Tate by a columnist in The Dallas Morning News, and Tate had already been heavily criticized by the Ku Klux Klan for permitting the integration of SMU.  Once word circulated about Gates, civic groups were quick to criticize the event.  Even the SMU Mothers Club expressed opposition to the Gates appearance.

Tate withstood the firestorm. Gates spoke on campus. In recalling the incident years later, Tate said he believed it essential for a university to serve as a marketplace of ideas.  Tate is remembered for his firm commitment to academic freedom as well as free speech. Today the Willis M. Tate Distinguished Lecture Series is one of SMU’s signature events.

Just in the last year, questions have been raised about speakers, some conservative, on the SMU campus. Yet speeches have been made, and the discourse has been civil. SMUDailyCampus.com was first to report about the controversy to move an annual 9/11 display from in front of Dallas Hall. There was miscommunication involved, but it was a bad move and everyone knew it. President R. Gerald Turner apologized in a letter to the SMU community.

Economic realities have, sadly, affected virtually every news media organization in the United States. Student media operations at many universities have been forced to change. Every member of our journalism faculty at one point worked in professional news media. We are disheartened by the changes but committed to preserving freedom of the press in every facet of the classroom and newsroom.

I personally have spent the last 40 years working for press freedom issues in Latin America. While president of the Inter American Press Association in 2000, I led a press freedom forum in Bogotá, Colombia. The civil war and narcotrafficking at the time were taking the lives of dozens of journalists every year. I’ll never forget a question posed by a young newspaper reporter at the forum. “What kind of a choice is it,” he asked, “when you have to choose between a story you know is important and your life?”

The choices we are making on press freedom in the United States, and on every college campus, are fortunately not life threatening. But they are no less profound.

 

Salute to Dudley Althaus

Dudley Althaus, one of the best journalists ever to report from Latin America.

My friend and former Houston Chronicle colleague Dudley Althaus is retiring today.  One of the smartest things I ever did was to approve his hiring as Mexico City Bureau chief for the Chronicle while I was managing editor.  He was already based in Mexico City, and he had wonderful and detailed institutional knowledge of the country and its government. After budget cuts in Houston, Dudley went to work for The Wall Street Journal. His detailed reporting and elegant prose have ceased to be published in U.S. journalism. I hope that is only temporary, but having communicated with Dudley recently I fear his retirement will really mean retirement. It’s a shame. His last story appeared today in the Journal.  Sam Quinones today has published a very nice blog item on Dudley in which he describes Dudley’s role as the leader of the Mexico City press corps. I share Sam’s concern that newspapers have cut budgets to the bone. Democracy will suffer. Unfortunately, international coverage has been among the items editors have found easiest to cut. What has happened to news media and, specifically, newspapers, is one of the great tragedies of journalism history. I hope, somehow, a recovery will be made in the ongoing transition to the Digital Age, but I doubt it.

Dudley was like most great writers I ever worked with. He fretted every detail. He was meticulous in fact checking. He was always concerned with fairness. He developed a deep and abiding love and respect for the people of Mexico and all of Latin America. He lamented the poverty he saw daily. He taught me a great deal about Latin America and helped stimulate my own learning and love for the Latin American culture.  At the Chronicle, he was a Pulitzer Prize finalist for his reporting on the cholera epidemic in Peru. Back in the 1990s, the Chronicle had resources to allow Dudley to travel widely. He loved the job, and I gave him wide latitude. He never failed to produce journalism of relevance and interest to our readers in Houston.

On my last day of work at the Chronicle, in late May of 2003, Dudley happened to be in Houston, and I was honored to have drinks with him when I left the office. I always have a room for you in Dallas, my friend. And, as you know, I keep a nice supply of tequila for such special occasions.

Returning professionalism to journalism

Bruce Sanford, partner at BakerHostetler in Washington, D.C., presented the 18th annual Sammons Lecture in Media Ethics last evening on the SMU campus. Bruce is one of the top First Amendment and media lawyers in the United States. The title of his lecture was “Trusting the Media in the Age of Trump.” A complete text of his lecture can be found here:  2017 Sammons Lecture in Media Ethics 

Bruce Sanford, partner at Baker Hostetler in Washington, D.C.

Bruce has represented the top news organizations in the United States on a variety of matters including libel defense and freedom of information. I have known him for many years, and he is a passionate and articulate voice for government transparency as well as professional and responsible news reporting. It was a challenging lecture for journalism students, and honestly a bit more optimistic that I am regarding the future of news media.  But he gave several excellent examples of innovative journalism that have created new avenues for accountability and integrity in news reporting.

We remain in a strange and difficult time in American politics, and the relationship between the government and the media has shifted significantly in the last 20 years. These changes have been chronicled in the mainstream press, academic work, and also in this blog. As Bruce noted in his lecture, confidence in the news media is at an all-time low. And often with good reason. “The sobering reality about the public’s relationship with the media is that, like an ugly divorce, there are contributions to the unhappiness from both sides,” he said. “As consumers of news, there are some things we bring to the dysfunction that only we can change.”

We didn’t reach this fragile place overnight, and no doubt both our political environment and the news media will require long-term repair. From the media standpoint, the digital age has wrought change no one could have imagined at the turn of the millennium. And the only certainty is that change will continue at a rapid pace. Thoughtful and reasoned consideration about a free press and its function in democracy will be needed from both our political class and our leaders in news media.

A salute to women in newspapers

Vivian Castleberry, who was in the vanguard of women in newspaper journalism.

Today we mourn the passing of the legendary Dallas journalist Vivian Castleberry. She was 95. The Dallas Morning News marked her death with a beautifully written story on her career.  The piece noted but some of the skepticism, sexism and discrimination she experienced when beginning in the newspaper business at a time when it was dominated by men. The story caused me to reflect on the handful of women I knew and worked with at the Houston Chronicle who had come into newspapers at the same time Vivian did. It was a group of women who graduated from college in the 1940s and entered the workforce in the era immediately after World War II.  Vivian graduated from high school in 1940 and was awarded a scholarship at SMU. She studied journalism, and served as editor of The Campus, the student newspaper.

I never met Vivian until I began teaching at SMU in 2003. But I could tell she was cut from the same cloth as the women I had known and admired in Houston. They came from a time when women in newspapers were generally limited to work in the Women’s News departments. The sections they produced were dominated by news of homemaking, fashion, child rearing and the basic domestic responsibilities thought to belong to women in those days. But what they proved over time, and Vivian was certainly in this group, is that they were damned fine reporters. They brought a different perspective to the stories they covered, the questions they asked, and how they wrote.  Ultimately they won the highest awards in journalism. Many went on to become fine editors, and the newspaper business, slowly but surely, changed for the better.

In the times I was with Vivian, she was never without that infectious smile. She was unfailingly kind and gracious. And even into her 90s, she had an enthusiasm and an intellectual curiosity that made her the journalist she was. She will be missed, but her contributions to journalism will never be forgotten.

 

 

SMU steps in it, but recovers

SMU has been in the news in the last week, and not especially in a favorable light. The controversy began when the university announced a plan to move a student display honoring the victims of 9/11 away from an area near Dallas Hall. The move included other student displays, but it was the 9/11 display that drew the headlines. Dallas Hall is the most prominent and recognizable building on the campus. In the initial report on the move, The Dallas Morning News reported that a policy by the university from July had determined that students had a right to be free of “messages that are triggering, harmful or harassing.” The paper also reported that the policy had been changed, but it was still the university’s intent to move student displays to an area other than near Dallas Hall. SMU immediately issued a statement of apology, noting that the display was an “important campus event” honoring the victims of 9/11. The display has been erected each year since 2010 by the Young Americans for Freedom, a student group on the SMU campus.

Other coverage followed in the Dallas paper as well as some national press, including Fox News. Among the other coverage was a column by Morning News writer Jacquielynn Floyd taking the university to task for the politically charged language of “triggering” mechanisms that has been an issue on several notably liberal campuses. Floyd correctly described the term as “idiotic.” Other coverage reported an exchange of correspondence between Texas Gov. Greg Abbott and SMU President R. Gerald Turner. Abbott encouraged the university to continue to allow the display in its place of prominence next to Dallas Hall. Even with the initial apology, it was still the university’s intent to move the various student displays away from Dallas Hall. The university’s position on moving the displays lasted for a week. Yesterday, the story finally came full circle with SMU agreeing to allow the 9/11 display in the same place where it has been. I don’t believe the initial communication to students intended to link “triggering” messages directly with the students’ 9/11 exhibit, but the damage was done.

In a letter to the SMU community dated Aug. 10, the day after the agreement, President Turner outlined the new agreement and acknowledged the mistake in communicating a policy that had not been approved. He said in the letter the error was one “we deeply regret.”

In putting this matter to rest, I’d like to make three points.

  • It could have been defensible to move all such displays away from the Dallas Hall area for the purpose of maintaining access to space that is the most visible and arguably most important on the campus. However, when the students’ 9/11 display became the focal point of the story, SMU was an automatic public relations loser. Students honoring 9/11 victims by putting 3,000 flags on prominent lawn space? Why would anyone pick that fight? It was an easy target for a conservative governor to make his points, which he did. It was also easy to gather sympathy for deserving students engaging in a sincere and honorable project.
  • The Morning News was not entirely correct in reporting that the language on “triggering” mechanisms was policy adopted in July.  In fairness to the newspaper, the message apparently was communicated as policy. It was language that was communicated to students in error, as we now know. The university, in its apology, said that the language had never been through the approval process. What seems to have happened is that the language had been on some document and ended up being transmitted to the student groups. It was error compounded by error, and embarrassingly so. That the 9/11 display could ever have even been tangentially associated as a “trigger” was absurd and insulting to students and the public. In his letter, President Turner made clear that the decision to move the displays, including the 9/11 display, was in no way connected to the language that was used. The language smacks of a politically correct dogma that has no place on a university campus. I expressed myself on this point as it related to university life in an op-ed piece published online by the Morning News almost two years ago and in other items on this blog.
  • I have written this before and will do so again. SMU has an excellent record of free speech and open intellectual inquiry, including academic freedom. Beyond the embarrassment of the current case, let’s hope it’s an instructive moment for the public as well as students and faculty. Many seem to believe that because “Methodist” is a part of the university’s name, there are inherent limits on freedom of expression. Most of our students and faculty aren’t Methodists, and one of the strengths of SMU is that we are a campus without religious requirements of any kind and open to all faiths. I am a Methodist, and the tradition of openness to experience and intellectual freedom was established by John Wesley, an Oxford graduate, in the foundation of Methodism in the late 18th Century.  That tradition has carried through in the number of excellent universities established by Methodists in the United States. Some of those universities still have Methodist affiliations, and some don’t. There is a famous story, frequently told and written by the late SMU Professor Emeritus Marshall Terry, of a major controversy in the 1950s when a socialist was invited by students to speak on campus. President Willis Tate found out about the invitation by reading The Daily Campus, the student newspaper. Howls of protest emerged from the conservative business community in Dallas, including a columnist in the Morning News who labeled Tate a “pinko.” Tate stood firm, and in the retelling by Terry said, “As long as discourse is civil on this campus, there will be free speech.” The speech occurred without incident.  Finally, Jacquiellyn Floyd noted in her column that it was the students, both conservative and liberal, who had come forward and in a statement expressed strong support for free speech and that there was no right to be “shielded” from ideas. The students put it brilliantly. And it was Kylie Madry, the editor in chief of The Daily Campus, who was out front on the story from the beginning. Her original story on Tuesday, Aug. 1, drew a link from The Washington Post.

In closing, I send out a special note of appreciation to the leaders of the various student groups who spoke up for freedom of expression.  As I’ve noted to several others, it could be we’re doing something right in the classrooms at SMU.

The Washington Post rises

CBS This Morning had an interview with Washington Post executive editor Marty Baron this week.  It was an interview that editors dream about, very laudatory and mentioning specifically several major news stories the paper has reported first about the Trump administration. The decades-long competition with The New York Times was mentioned, and for sure editors and staff at the Times have to be cringing at the stories the Post has published first. In the old days of newspapering, we called them scoops. And when you got beat, it was not good.

Baron was asked about the new ownership at the Post, and he said that the purchase of the paper by Amazon founder Jeff Bezos had brought financial capital to the paper but also intellectual capital in pushing the organization into the digital age. To me, Amazon is one of the most extraordinary companies of the digital age. And The Washington Post has been reinvigorated since Bezos purchased the paper from the Graham family more than three years ago. In the last couple of years I have recommended the Post to a number of people who have asked for a recommendation of a quality newspaper. The paper’s political coverage is solid, the international staff still very engaged, and, as a personal bonus for me, the sports section is nicely done. Certainly the editorial page of the paper leans left, but I find it more reasoned and more balanced than the sharply left and often maddeningly shrill editorial page of the Times. And George Will is a solid conservative columnist and also one of the finest stylists writing for a newspaper.

Newspapers continue to struggle in the digital age. The reasons are many and varied. I agree with many conservative critics that many news organizations seem intent on making the Trump administration a failure. Just as many news organizations insisted on doing everything possible to make the Obama administration a success beginning in 2008. Obama had marginal success as a president. I’ve predicted that Trump will actually have more success than some people, especially Democrats, believe. But the news stories that the Post has broken provide information the public needs to know. And it also creates a telling environment indicating that the Trump administration needs to make serious adjustments in its strategies and communications.  I believe the Obama administration was ill-served by the softball coverage it received, especially in the early years.  Thomas Jefferson helped create the idea of the press as a check on government. He survived some of the most vicious criticism and name-calling one could imagine. And he proved to be one of our best presidents. I believe government is best served, and presidents, too, by strong coverage that provides the information people need to know for the self-governance intended by the Founders.

Ethics, AP and the Nazis

The Washington Post has done some fascinating reporting on a secret agreement made between the Associated Press and Nazi Germany in 1941. The agreement allowed for photographs by German photographers to be used by the AP and distributed as a part of its regular photo service to AP member news organizations. It raises old and difficult questions about ethics. The AP says that it did nothing to compromise its independence as a news organization. And yet the propaganda effects of some of the photographs are obvious. It is always difficult to make assessments on such matters more than 70 years after the fact. The AP was of course charged with obtaining news and photographs about world events. And yet by 1941, the world pretty much knew of the tyranny and ultimate ambition of Adolf Hitler, even if the full scope of the Holocaust was not widely known. I have always respected the AP and, during my time as an editor, gave it my full support. Even understanding the difficulty in trying to make the correct assessments on such an agreement in 1941, I am bothered to learn of it today.

Trump’s first 100 days

ABC News political analyst Matthew Dowd, SMU Journalism chair Tony Pederson

News media have been filled with reports on President Trump’s first 100 days in office. It’s always been a standard news media measurement, but it’s even more important now in the digital age. If you do an Internet search on the topic, literally thousands of links will appear. I was honored last week to be on a panel to discuss the topic at the Headliners Club in Austin. The Headliners Club has for more than 60 years discussed news and major events with a membership of members of the news media and government as well as business leaders in Texas. And the Headliners Foundation of Texas annually provides excellent scholarships for students studying journalism and communications.

The second panelist was ABC News political analyst Matthew Dowd. The moderator was veteran journalist and chair of the Headliners Foundation of Texas Board of Governors Mark Morrison.  We had a lively discussion in front of a packed Headliners Club. (The food and the cocktails at the Headliners Club are exactly as I remember them. Excellent.) Matthew and I were asked to grade Trump’s first 100 days. Matthew gave Trump an incomplete; I gave him a C. Perhaps it’s my tendency as a professor to want to attach a fixed grade. We both agreed that Trump’s biggest accomplishment has been the appointment of Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court. Gorsuch, 49 years old, is a solid conservative and should be an influence on the court for decades. His background and education are of a superb legal intellectual.

We discussed at length the various failures of the new Trump administration, and they are many. Clearly, not making good on the promise to repeal and replace Obamacare is a major failure.  His travel restrictions from Muslim countries and his effort to block funding to sanctuary cities are tied up in the courts. His recently announced tax reform, in which he seeks a major reduction in the corporate tax rate and an increase in the personal deduction, is being met with scorn from Democrats and some general skepticism. I predicted, however, that Trump will be successful in getting some type of a major rewrite of the tax code. Even the most skeptical Democrats would agree that a revised, comprehensible tax code would be a good thing.

In assigning a grade to Trump’s first 100 days, I noted that his supporters generally have a different take on the news. For the most part, they are not seeing a daily catalog of failures and shortcomings that are the headlines on the major evening newscasts, The New York Times and The Washington Post. My comment to the Headliners Club was this: “Most Trump supporters are saying, ‘Yes, by God, we got our man elected. He’s moved into that White House and he’s giving ’em hell at every turn. Just what we wanted.'” And I think polling bears that out. His hard-core supporters like what he’s doing. They live a different reality than the mainstream news media, particularly the Eastern media. Which is why so many in the media were surprised that he won in the first place, and why Democrats remain so embittered.

I noted in an earlier blog and op-ed that Trump’s erratic and often angry campaign has morphed into a presidency of like tendencies. I think a grade of C is appropriate. He’s been average. No more and no less. But it has been pointed out, and noted at our Headliners discussion, that presidents have had a bad first 100 days and then gone on to be considered very good. Harry Truman is such an example. And there have been others have an excellent start in the first 100 days and then go on to be considered poor presidents. Jimmy Carter is such an example.

We were also asked about Trump’s characterization of journalists as “enemies of the people.” I said it was of course nothing more than Trump’s hyperbolic approach to his Twitter feed and much of his commentary in general. Nonetheless, I said that words can be hurtful. There is certainly enough criticism of modern news media, and much of it is deserved. But if we forget the traditional and necessary role of the news media in democracy and in modern society, we will err grievously. I said that we have been on a path of the last 20 years in which news media essentially have been marginalized by government. I noted the unprecedented seizure of Associated Press phone records by the Eric Holder Justice Department in one of the numerous and relentless leak investigations during the Obama administration. I noted the USA Patriot Act, passed within weeks of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, that did serious damage to access to public information. And I said that the Federal Freedom of Information Act, passed in 1966 and signed by President Lyndon Johnson, had been a global model for government transparency but now is crippled by bureaucracy, inefficiency and a government tendency to want to operate in secret. I said at the Headliners meeting that my friend and colleague Mike Wilson, editor of The Dallas Morning News, had written a nicely nuanced column in response to the Trump tweet on journalists. Being a journalist and editor has never been easy, and today’s hostile environment, not to mention the economic situation for most news media, has made journalism and news especially difficult. Before leaving this topic, I noted that Hillary Clinton despises and distrusts the news media every bit as much as does Donald Trump. She just doesn’t tweet about it.

Of the major news reports on Trump’s first 100 days, one of the best to me has been done by John Dickerson of CBS News.  The highlights are in several segments of video on the CBS website.  There is also a full transcript of the interview available.

I predict Trump will be more successful than many Democrats can stand and less successful than many Republicans want. At the Headliners discussion, both Matthew and I agreed that international issues could create a crisis in which Trump could enjoy popular support. The rally-round-the-flag sentiment is historically very powerful. North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-un is kooky and very likely mentally unstable. He is a wild card in a world of unpredictable and dangerous currents and events. But also unpredictable will be whether Trump’s tax plan and domestic policies can fuel real economic growth. The general economic malaise has been a part of the angst that fueled Trump’s candidacy and his election. The U.S. has also had a bull market that just turned eight years old and economic growth that has been steady if unspectacular. A recession is coming. Who can say when? But one will indeed come. And if Trump should be unlucky enough to be president when it comes, he will be blamed. And any good that he does will fall into the black hole of the harsh judgment of presidential history.

O’Reilly departs Fox News

News media are reporting, sometimes gleefully, the departure of Bill O’Reilly from Fox News. The parting was almost inevitable since The New York Times reported April 1 that the network had paid about $13 million in settlements of sexual harassment claims. The settlements, according to the Times, came after Fox chairman and CEO Roger Ailes was pushed out of the company last summer over similar allegations. Among the accusers were Fox stars Gretchen Carlson and Megyn Kelly, both of whom have since left the network. Some of the news media have seemed gleeful in reporting O’Reilly’s downfall because, as he often stated, his was the No. 1-rated cable news program and had been for years.

There is also the reason that O’Reilly had for years criticized other news media over bias and inaccuracy and, even as President Trump has done, said other media were “failing.” Some in journalism feel that O’Reilly has played a role in the continuing decline in the public’s confidence in news media. It is difficult to understand exactly the level of culpability for Ailes and O’Reilly amidst the dozens of accusations of sexual harassment. What can be safely said is that a culture existed at Fox that very likely was out of the Mad Men era. And also that such a culture has no business in the modern workplace.

Fox News has been an enormous success for Rupert Murdoch and News Corp. Fox News began in 1996, and it was clearly intended by Murdoch as a balance to what he perceived as the consistently liberal bias of the Eastern media establishment.  Fox News became the most popular cable news channel within five years. Even with O’Reilly and Ailes gone and the prime-time lineup undergoing a major shakeup, Fox News has a strong brand among conservatives and won’t be going away.  Here’s also a personal prediction that Tucker Carlson will be a success as O’Reilly’s successor in the coveted evening time slot. Carlson is more erudite, nuanced and a less contentious personality than O’Reilly.

I have had a personal feeling for years that O’Reilly’s abrasive personality actually damaged conservatives. He was clearly polarizing for liberals and even many moderates. He played well with the six-pack crowd and many of those who helped elect Donald Trump. But real conservatives, what I call the sane wing of the Republic Party and not the Tea Party crazies, have needed to woo moderates on the basis of rational and sound economic policy as well as social policies that make sense for the majority. Many of O’Reilly’s histrionics made that difficult.

And as media have also reported, what really did O’Reilly in was that advertisers began abandoning the program. This made the decision easy for Fox. Advertisers have too much at stake to be associated with the lightning rod that O’Reilly had become.